Sandy soils have good drainage and heat retention. They produce highly aromatic wines with low tannin and lighter colour.
Clay soils are cool and hold water. They encourage intensely structured wines with deeper colour and flavour.
Silt retains water and heat, and can be very fertile. The wines from silt soils tend to be smooth but have less acidity.
Gravel soils have good drainage, absorb heat well, and force the vines to dig deep for nutrients. Gravel and Cabernet Sauvignon are a natural pairing.
Limestone can contain high concentrations of the fossils of ancient marine life and is great for growing Chardonnay and Pinot Noir, as demonstrated by the soils of the Côte d’Or.
Chalk soils are cool and drain well. The high calcium content of these soils makes them alkaline, resulting in grapes with high acidity.
Volcanic soils have a high mineral content and excellent drainage.